Mastering is the polishing of a finished mix, as well as the final step in quality control.

Mastering often involves EQ, compression, stereo image optimization, noise and click removal, as well as considering a suitable loudness target.

Typical topics include:

· Choice of equipment, monitoring and acoustic treatment
· Compression and equalizing in mastering
· Izotope RX Advanced spectral repair
· Master limiting, soft clipping or A/D clipping
· Loudness and streaming norms

Esoteric topics include:

· Holistic versus reductionistic workflow
· Lossy encoding (psychoacoustic compression)
· Inter-sample peaks and True Peaks
· CD Red Book/DDP or vinyl mastering
· Testing and calibrating